Anti-Hepatocellular-Cancer Activity Exerted by β-Sitosterol and β-Sitosterol-Glucoside from Indigofera zollingeriana Miq
Vo, T.K.; Ta, Q.T.H.; Chu, Q.T.; Nguyen, T.T.; Vo, V.G.
ISSN/ISBN: 1420-3049 PMID: 32630623 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25133021
Indigofera zollingeriana Miq (I. zollingeriana) is a widely grown tree in Vietnam. It is used to cure various illnesses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical constituents of an I. zollingeriana extract and test its anticancer activity on hepatocellular cells (Huh7 and HepG2). The experimental results of the analysis of the bioactive compounds revealed that β-sitosterol (β-S) and β-sitosterol-glucoside (β-SG) were the main ingredients of the I. zollingeriana extract. Regarding anticancer activity, the β-S and β-SG of I. zollingeriana were found to exhibit cytotoxic effects against HepG2 and Huh7 cells, but not against normal human primary fibroblasts. The β-S was able to inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 and Huh7 cells in a dose-dependent manner with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 6.85 ± 0.61 µg/mL and 8.71 ± 0.21 µg/mL, respectively (p < 0.01), whereas the β-SG IC50 values were 4.64 ± 0.48 µg/mL for HepG2 and 5.25 ± 0.14 µg/mL for Huh7 cells (p < 0.01). Remarkably, our study also indicated that β-S and β-SG exhibited cytotoxic activities via inducing apoptosis and activating caspase-3 and -9 in these cells. These findings demonstrated that β-S and β-SG from I. zollingeriana could potentially be developed into promising therapeutic agents to treat liver cancer.