Syntaxin 1A Gene Is Negatively Regulated in a Cell/Tissue Specific Manner by YY1 Transcription Factor, which Binds to the -183 to -137 Promoter Region Together with Gene Silencing Factors Including Histone Deacetylase
Nakayama, T.; Fukutomi, T.; Terao, Y.; Akagawa, K.
The HPC-1/syntaxin 1A (Stx1a) gene, which is involved in synaptic transmission and neurodevelopmental disorders, is a TATA-less gene with several transcription start sites. It is activated by the binding of Sp1 and acetylated histone H3 to the -204 to +2 core promoter region (CPR) in neuronal cell/tissue. Furthermore, it is depressed by the association of class 1 histone deacetylases (HDACs) to Stx1a-CPR in non-neuronal cell/tissue. To further clarify the factors characterizing Stx1a gene silencing in non-neuronal cell/tissue not expressing Stx1a, we attempted to identify the promoter region forming DNA-protein complex only in non-neuronal cells. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays (EMSA) demonstrated that the -183 to -137 OL2 promoter region forms DNA-protein complex only in non-neuronal fetal rat skin keratinocyte (FRSK) cells which do not express Stx1a. Furthermore, the Yin-Yang 1 (YY1) transcription factor binds to the -183 to -137 promoter region of Stx1a in FRSK cells, as shown by competitive EMSA and supershift assay. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that YY1 in vivo associates to Stx1a-CPR in cell/tissue not expressing Stx1a and that trichostatin A treatment in FRSK cells decreases the high-level association of YY1 to Stx1a-CPR in default. Reporter assay indicated that YY1 negatively regulates Stx1a transcription. Finally, mass spectrometry analysis showed that gene silencing factors, including HDAC1, associate onto the -183 to -137 promoter region together with YY1. The current study is the first to report that Stx1a transcription is negatively regulated in a cell/tissue-specific manner by YY1 transcription factor, which binds to the -183 to -137 promoter region together with gene silencing factors, including HDAC.