In Vitro and in Vivo Demonstration of Ultraefficient and Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Agents for Photodynamic Antibacterial Chemotherapy
Xiao, Q.; Mai, B.; Nie, Y.; Yuan, C.; Xiang, M.; Shi, Z.; Wu, J.; Leung, W.; Xu, C.; Yao, S.Q.; Wang, P.; Gao, L.
Acs Applied Materials and Interfaces 13(10): 11588-11596
Increasing threats from both pathogenic infections and antibiotic resistance highlight the pressing demand for nonantibiotic agents and alternative therapies. Herein, we report several new phenothiazinium-based derivatives, which could be readily synthesized via fragment-based assembly, which exhibited remarkable bactericidal activities both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, in contrast to numerous clinically and preclinically used antibacterial photosensitizers, these compounds were able to eliminate various types of microorganisms, including Gram-(+) Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Gram-(-) Escherichia coli, multidrug-resistant S. aureus, and their associated biofilms, at low drug and light dosages (e.g., 0.21 ng/mL in vitro and 1.63 ng/cm2 in vivo to eradicate S. aureus at 30 J/cm2). This study thus unveils the potential of these novel phenothiaziniums as potent antimicrobial agents for highly efficient photodynamic antibacterial chemotherapy.