The Rate of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Change with Diffusion time on Breast Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Depends on Breast Tumor Types and Molecular Prognostic Biomarker Expression
Iima, M.; Kataoka, M.; Honda, M.; Ohashi, A.; Ohno Kishimoto, A.; Ota, R.; Uozumi, R.; Urushibata, Y.; Feiweier, T.; Toi, M.; Nakamoto, Y.
Investigative Radiology 56(8): 501-508
The aim of this study was to investigate the variation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values with diffusion time according to breast tumor type and prognostic biomarkers expression. A total of 201 patients with known or suspected breast tumors were prospectively enrolled in this study, and 132 breast tumors (86 malignant and 46 benign) were analyzed. Diffusion-weighted imaging scans with 2 diffusion times were acquired on a clinical 3-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner using oscillating and pulsed diffusion-encoding gradients (effective diffusion times, 4.7 and 96.6 milliseconds) and b values of 0 and 700 s/mm2. Diagnostic performances to differentiate malignant and benign breast tumors for ADC values at short and long diffusion times (ADCshort and ADClong), ΔADC (the rate of change in ADC values with diffusion time), ADC0-1000 (ADC value from a standard protocol), and standard reading including dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (BI-RADS) were investigated. The correlations of ADCshort, ADClong, and ΔADC values with hormone receptor expression and breast cancer subtypes were also analyzed. The ADC values were lower, and ΔADC was higher in malignant tumors compared with benign tumors. The specificity of ADC values at all diffusion times and ΔADC values for differentiating malignant and benign breast tumors was superior to that of BI-RADS (87.0%-95.7% vs 73.9%), whereas the sensitivity was inferior (87.2%-90.7% vs 100%). Lower ADCshort and ADC0-1000 in ER-positive compared with ER-negative cancers (false discovery rate [FDR]-adjusted P = 0.037 and 0.018, respectively) and lower ADCshort, ADClong, and ADC0-1000 in progesterone receptor-positive compared with progesterone receptor-negative cancers (FDR-adjusted P = 0.037, 0.036, and 0.018, respectively) were found. Ki-67-positive cancers had larger ΔADCs than Ki-67-negative cancers (FDR-adjusted P = 0.018). The ADC values vary with different diffusion time and vary in correlation with molecular biomarkers, especially Ki-67. Those results suggest that the diffusion time, which should be reported, might be a useful parameter to consider for breast cancer management.