Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) suppresses triacylglycerol accumulation and monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells

Yao, D.W.; Ma, J.; Yang, C.L.; Chen, L.L.; He, Q.Y.; Coleman, D.N.; Wang, T.Z.; Jiang, X.L.; Luo, J.; Ma, Y.; Loor, J.J.

Journal of Dairy Science 104(6): 7283-7294

2021


ISSN/ISBN: 1525-3198
PMID: 33741170
Accession: 079139072

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Abstract
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a well-known tumor suppressor in nonruminants and regulates various cellular processes including growth through dephosphorylation of phosphoinositide substrates. Although studies with bovine mammary tissue suggested a role for PTEN during lactation, its potential role in lipid metabolism remains unknown. Objectives of the present study were to determine PTEN abundance in goat mammary tissue at 2 stages of lactation (n = 6 Xinong Saanen dairy goats per stage), and to use gene-silencing and adenoviral transfections in vitro with isolated goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) to evaluate the role of PTEN abundance of lipid metabolism-related genes. Abundance of PTEN decreased by 51.5% at peak lactation compared with the dry period. The PTEN was overexpressed in isolated GMEC through adenoviral transfection using an adenovirus system with Ad-GFP (recombinant adenovirus of green fluorescent protein) as control, and silenced via targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection with a scrambled small interfering RNA as a negative control. Cell culture was performed for 48 h before RNA extraction, triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis, and fatty acid analysis. Overexpression of PTEN downregulated abundance of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase α (ACACA), fatty acid synthase (FASN), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor1 (SREBF1), stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1), diacylglycerol acytransferase 1 (DGAT1), 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 6 (AGPAT6) coupled with an increase in patatin-like-phospholipase domain containing 2 (PNPLA2), hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 β (CPT1B). Furthermore, overexpressing PTEN in vitro resulted in a significant decrease in TAG concentration and concentration of C16:1. In contrast, interference of PTEN led to an opposite effect on lipid metabolism in GMEC. These changes suggested a shift from lipogenesis and esterification to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation. Collectively, PTEN seems to play a role in monounsaturated fatty acids synthesis and lipid accumulation in GMEC.