Antioxidative effects of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor against pathological retinal angiogenesis through promotion of mitochondrial function

Dong, L.; Lin, T.; Li, W.; Hong, Y.; Ren, X.; Ke, Y.; Zhang, X.; Li, X.

Journal of Molecular Medicine 99(7): 967-980

2021


ISSN/ISBN: 1432-1440
PMID: 33770188
DOI: 10.1007/s00109-021-02069-z
Accession: 079145339

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Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a by-product of oxygen metabolism mainly originating from mitochondria, participate in many pathological processes related to ophthalmopathy. Excessive production of ROS leads to oxidative stress, which influences the permeability, proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human retinal microcapillary endothelial cells (HRMECs). The molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of ROS are not clear. In Vldlr-/- mice, we used fundus fluorescein angiography and retinal flat mount staining to observe the effect of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) on pathological retinal neovascularization in vivo. Additionally, in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells treated with 4-HNE, cell viability, tube formation, wound healing, and Transwell assays were performed to study the effect of PSF on the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of retinal vascular endothelial cells in vitro. Moreover, reactive oxygen species assay, real-time PCR, and Western blot were included to analyze the potential mechanism of PSF in the above series of effects. PSF ameliorated intraretinal neovascularization (IRNV) in vivo in Vldlr-/- mice. Under 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) conditions in vitro, PSF reprogrammed mitochondrial bioenergetic and glycolytic profiles. It also reduced ROS levels and inhibited 4-HNE-induced angiogenesis, which involves the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of HRMECs. These results suggest that PSF participates in the regulation of HRMECs proliferation and migration during the development of pathological angiogenesis. We demonstrated that PSF enhanced Nrf2 activation and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt signaling in HRMECs, which subsequently resulted in intracellular ROS scavenging. PSF restored endoplasmic reticulum (ER) redox homeostasis, which was indicated by an increase in protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and Ero-1α and a reduction in GRP78 and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). PSF also attenuated ER stress via regulation of the protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase PERK/eukaryotic translation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α)/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) pathway in 4-HNE-treated HRMECs. Our research shows that PSF may be a potential antioxidant that regulates pathological angiogenesis through ERK-AKT/Nrf2/HO-1 and PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 signal regulation. KEY MESSAGES: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mainly originating from mitochondria is a by-product of oxygen metabolism in the body and participates in the pathological process related to multiple blindness-related ophthalmopathy. Moreover , excessive production of ROS will lead to oxidative stress. Consequently, oxidative stress influences the permeability, proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human retinal microcapillary endothelial cells (HRMECs). The molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of ROS remain unclear. Here, we reveal that Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) ameliorates intraretinal neovascularization (IRNV) in vivo in Vldlr-/- mice. Furthermore, under 4-HNE conditions in vitro, PSF reprograms mitochondrial bioenergetic and glycolytic profiles, reduces ROS levels, and inhibits 4-HNE-induced angiogenesis, which involves the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of HRMECs, suggesting that it participates in regulating the proliferation and migration of HRMECs during the development of pathological angiogenesis. Furthermore, PSF enhances Nrf2 activation and HO-1 expression through ERK and AKT signaling in HRMECs, resulting in intracellular ROS scavenging. PSF restores endoplasmic reticulum (ER) redox homeostasis, as indicated by an increase in PDI and Ero-1α and a reduction in GRP78 and CHOP. PSF also attenuates ER stress by regulating the PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 pathway in 4-HNE-treated HRMECs.