Structural Characterization of Receptor-Receptor Interactions in the Allosteric Modulation of G Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPCR) Dimers

Lazim, R.; Suh, D.; Lee, J.W.; Vu, T.N.L.; Yoon, S.; Choi, S.

International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22(6)

2021


ISSN/ISBN: 1422-0067
PMID: 33810175
DOI: 10.3390/ijms22063241
Accession: 079159185

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Abstract
G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) oligomerization, while contentious, continues to attract the attention of researchers. Numerous experimental investigations have validated the presence of GPCR dimers, and the relevance of dimerization in the effectuation of physiological functions intensifies the attractiveness of this concept as a potential therapeutic target. GPCRs, as a single entity, have been the main source of scrutiny for drug design objectives for multiple diseases such as cancer, inflammation, cardiac, and respiratory diseases. The existence of dimers broadens the research scope of GPCR functions, revealing new signaling pathways that can be targeted for disease pathogenesis that have not previously been reported when GPCRs were only viewed in their monomeric form. This review will highlight several aspects of GPCR dimerization, which include a summary of the structural elucidation of the allosteric modulation of class C GPCR activation offered through recent solutions to the three-dimensional, full-length structures of metabotropic glutamate receptor and γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor as well as the role of dimerization in the modification of GPCR function and allostery. With the growing influence of computational methods in the study of GPCRs, we will also be reviewing recent computational tools that have been utilized to map protein-protein interactions (PPI).