Pharmacokinetics of 2-phenoxyethanol and its major metabolite, phenoxyacetic acid, after dermal and inhaled routes of exposure: application to development PBPK model in rats
Kwon, M.; Park, J.B.; Kwon, M.; Song, J.; Yeo, C.S.; Bae, S.H.
Archives of Toxicology 95(6): 2019-2036
ISSN/ISBN: 1432-0738 PMID: 33844041 DOI: 10.1007/s00204-021-03041-z
2-Phenoxyethanol (PE), ethylene glycol monophenyl ether, is widely used as a preservative in cosmetic products as well as in non-cosmetics. Since PE has been used in many types of products, it can be absorbed via dermal or inhaled route for systemic exposures. In this study, the pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of PE and its major metabolite, phenoxyacetic acid (PAA), after dermal (30 mg and 100 mg) and inhaled administration (77 mg) of PE in rats were performed. PE was administered daily for 4 days and blood samples were collected at day 1 and day 4 for PK analysis. PE was rapidly absorbed and extensively metabolized to form PAA. After multiple dosing, the exposures of PE and PAA were decreased presumably due to the induction of metabolizing enzymes of PE and PAA. In dermal mass balance study using [14C]-phenoxyethanol ([14C]PE) as a microtracer, most of the PE and its derivatives were excreted in urine (73.03%) and rarely found in feces (0.66%). Based on these PK results, a whole-body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of PE and PAA after dermal application and inhalation in rats was successfully developed. Most of parameters were obtained from the literatures and experiments, and intrinsic clearance at steady-state (CLint,ss) were optimized based on the observed multiple PK data. With the developed model, systemic exposures of PE and PAA after dermal application and inhalation were simulated following no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 500 mg/kg/day for dermal application and that of 12.7 mg/kg/day for inhalation provided by the Environmental Protection Agency. The area under the concentration-time curve at steady state (AUCss) in kidney and liver (and lung for inhalations), which are known target organs of exhibiting toxicity of PE, as well as AUCss in plasma of PE and PAA were obtained from the model.