Antibacterial Activity of Caffeic Acid Combined with UV-A Light against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes
Park, M.-Y.; Kang, D.-H.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 87(15): E0063121
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of caffeic acid (CA), which is a natural polyphenol, combined with UV-A light against the representative foodborne bacteria Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes. Data regarding the inactivation of these bacteria and its dependence on CA concentration, light wavelength, and light dose were obtained. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were reduced to the detection limit when treated with 3 mM CA and UV-A for 3 J/cm2 and 4 J/cm2, respectively, and 5 J/cm2 treatment induced 3.10 log reduction in L. monocytogenes. To investigate the mechanism for inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes, measurement of polyphenol uptake, membrane damage assessment, enzymatic activity assay, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were conducted. It was revealed that CA was significantly (P < 0.05) absorbed by bacterial cells, and UV-A light allowed a higher uptake of CA for both pathogens. Additionally, CA plus UV-A treatment induced significant (P < 0.05) cell membrane damage. In the enzymatic activity assay, the activities of both pathogens were reduced by CA, and a greater reduction occurred by use of CA plus UV-A. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicated that CA plus UV-A treatment notably destroyed the intercellular structure. In addition, antibacterial activity was also observed in commercial apple juice, which showed results similar to those obtained from phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), resulting in a significant (P < 0.05) reduction for all three pathogens without any changes in color parameters (L*, a*, and b*), total phenolic compounds, and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity. IMPORTANCE Photodynamic inactivation (PDI), which involves photoactivation of a photosensitizer (PS), is an emerging field of study, as it effectively reduces various kinds of microorganisms. Although there are several PSs that have been used for PDI, there is a need to find naturally occurring PSs for safer application in the food industry. Caffeic acid, a natural polyphenol found in most fruits and vegetables, has recently been studied for its potential to act as a novel photosensitizer. However, no studies have been conducted regarding its antibacterial activity depending on treatment conditions and its antibacterial mechanism. In this study, we closely examined the effectiveness of caffeic acid in combination with UV-A light for inactivating representative foodborne bacteria in liquid medium. Therefore, the results of this research are expected to be utilized as basic data for future application of caffeic acid in PDI, especially when controlling pathogens in liquid food processing.