Different Protein Sources in the Maternal Diet of the Rat during Gestation and Lactation Affect Milk Composition and Male Offspring Development during Adulthood
Bautista, C.J.; Reyes-Castro, L.A.; Bautista, R.J.; Ramirez, V.; Elias-López, A.L.; Hernández-Pando, R.; Zambrano, E.
Reproductive Sciences 28(9): 2481-2494
Protein sources in maternal diet are important for mammary gland differentiation and milk protein; however, few studies have examined the metabolic and cellular adaptations of mothers based on protein source diets during pregnancy and lactation, and leptin concentration in offspring. We evaluated metabolic parameters and maternal key organs and milk components in mothers at the end of lactation, who were fed different sources of proteins. In postnatal day 110 and 250, we studied development parameters and leptin in male offspring. Female rats received a Vegetal (V) or Animal (A) diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring ate V diet until postnatal day 250, which yielded two groups: Vv and Av. Milk dry, protein and fat were analyzed. Maternal metabolic parameters, leptin, and liver, adipose tissue and mammary gland histological analyses were studied. Body weight, food intake and leptin were analyzed in offspring at two ages. Adipose tissue weight and cells size and liver fat, mammary gland apoptosis, weight, milk protein and leptin were higher in A vs V. Maternal liver and milk dry were lower in A vs V. All offspring parameters were higher in Av vs Vv at postnatal day 110; however, at postnatal day 250, leptin was higher in Av vs Vv. Maternal serum and milk leptin had a positive correlation with offspring serum leptin at both ages. Consumption of animal protein-based diets by mothers during developmental periods affects specific maternal organs and changes milk composition during lactation, leading to a hyperleptinemic phenotype in male offsprings.