Section 80
Chapter 79,289

The Percentage of [-2]Pro-Prostate-Specific Antigen and the Prostate Health Index Outperform Prostate-Specific Antigen and the Percentage of Free Prostate-Specific Antigen in the Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer and can be Used as Reflex Tests

Garrido, M.M.; Marta, J.é C.; Bernardino, R.M.; Guerra, J.ão.; Fernandes, F.; Pereira, M.H.; Ribeiro, R.; Holdenrieder, S.; Pinheiro, L.ís.C.; Guimarães, J.ão.T.

Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 146(6): 691-700


ISSN/ISBN: 1543-2165
PMID: 34343237
Accession: 079288507

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There is a need to avoid the overdiagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and to find more specific biomarkers. To evaluate the clinical utility of [-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen ([-2]proPSA) derivatives in detecting clinically significant PCa (csPCa) and to compare it with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and with the percentage of free PSA (%fPSA). Two hundred thirty-seven men (PSA: 2-10 ng/mL) scheduled for a prostate biopsy were enrolled. Parametric and nonparametric tests, receiver operating characteristic curves, and logistic regression analysis were applied. Outcomes were csPCa and overall PCa. Both [-2]proPSA derivatives were significantly higher in csPCa and overall PCa (P < .001). The areas under the curves for the prediction of csPCa were higher for the percentage of [-2]proPSA (%[-2]proPSA) (0.781) and the prostate health index (PHI) (0.814) than for PSA (0.651) and %fPSA (0.724). There was a gain of 11% in diagnostic accuracy when %[-2]proPSA or PHI were added to a base model with PSA and %fPSA. Twenty-five percent to 29% of biopsies could have been spared with %[-2]proPSA (cutoff: ≥1.25%) and PHI (cutoff: ≥27), missing 10% of csPCas. The same results could have been achieved by using [-2]proPSA as a reflex test, when %fPSA was 25% or less (cutoffs: ≥1.12% and ≥24 for %[-2]proPSA and PHI, respectively). The [-2]proPSA derivatives improve the diagnostic accuracy of csPCa when the PSA value is between 2 and 10 ng/mL, sparing unnecessary biopsies and selecting patients for active surveillance. [-2]proPSA can be used as a reflex test when %fPSA is 25% or less, without reducing the diagnostic accuracy for csPCa and the number of spared biopsies.

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