Section 80
Chapter 79,296

Insulin-like growth factor-1 induces IRE1-XBP1-dependent endoplasmic reticulum biogenesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells

Sharmin, M.M.; Hayashi, S.; Miyaji, M.; Ishizaki, H.; Matsuyama, H.; Haga, S.; Yonekura, S.

Journal of Dairy Science 104(11): 12094-12104


ISSN/ISBN: 1525-3198
PMID: 34364639
Accession: 079295610

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Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays a key role in proliferation and galactopoiesis in mammary epithelial cells (MEC), but its definitive functions on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during protein synthesis remain unknown. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of IGF-1 on ER biogenesis in MEC in vitro and examined the expression of ER biogenesis-associated genes in the mammary gland during early lactation. We treated mammary alveolar cells-large T antigen cells (immortalized bovine MEC line established via stable transfection with simian virus-40 large T-antigen) with IGF-1 and examined ER biogenesis using the fluorescence intensity of an ER tracker and quantitative real-time PCR. We found IGF-1 significantly increased ER tracker staining and upregulated mRNA levels of ER biogenesis-related genes, such as CHKA (choline kinase α), PCYT1A (choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A), and SURF4 (surfeit locus protein 4). We focused on unfolded protein response to explore molecular mechanisms by which IGF-1 induces ER biogenesis. We found IGF-1 significantly increased mRNA levels of the XBP1 splicing form (XBP1s). Based on western blot analysis, IGF-1 induced the expression of (inositol-requiring kinase 1 α) protein, upstream of XBP1s, and phosphorylated-IRE1α. The inhibition of IRE1 endoribonuclease activity with 4-methylumbelliferone 8-carbaldehyde (4μ8C) significantly suppressed the increase in ER tracker fluorescence and ER biogenesis-related gene expression induced by IGF-1. Also, IGF-1-induced XBP1s and ER biogenesis-associated gene expression was inhibited by rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1), indicating that IRE1-XBP1 activation by IGF-1 is mediated by mTORC1. Moreover, to clarify the expression of XBP1s and ER biogenesis-associated genes expression under normal physiological conditions, mammary gland tissue from biopsies of dairy cows during late gestation and lactation were analyzed. In vivo data highlighted the significant increases in the mRNA levels of XBP1s and ER biogenesis-related genes in mammary gland tissue immediately after calving through 6 wk of lactation. The mRNA levels of IGF1R (IGF-1 receptor) in mammary glands increased during 6 wk of lactation. Therefore, the present study indicated for the first time that IGF-1 induces ER biogenesis by activating the IRE1-XBP1 axis under the regulation of mTORC1 in bovine MEC line.

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