Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) in soil around municipal solid waste incinerator: a comparison with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs)
Song, A.; Li, H.; Liu, M.; Peng, P.'a.; Hu, J.; Sheng, G.; Ying, G.
Environmental Pollution 293: 118563
Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) share similar toxicities and thermal origins, e.g., municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). Recently, PBDD/Fs from MSWI attracted rising concern because their important precursors, i.e., brominated flame retardants (BFRs), were frequently found in various wastes for landfill or MSWI feedstock. So far, however, little is known about PBDD/Fs and their associated risks in the vicinal environments of MSWI. Here we analyzed PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs in 29 soil samples collected around a multiyear large-scale MSWI, and compared their spatial distributions, sources and risks. PBDD/Fs demonstrated comparable concentrations and toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) to PCDD/Fs in these samples. Spatially, both the concentrations of PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs decreased outwards from the MSWI, and exhibited significant linear correlations with the distances from the MSWI in the southeast downwind soil, suggesting the influence of the MSWI on its vicinal soil environment. However, the existence of other dioxin sources concealed its influence beyond 6 km. PBDD/Fs in the soils were characterized by highly-brominated PBDFs, especially Octa-BDF, and their sources were diagnosed as the MSWI and diesel exhaust; PCDD/Fs, however, were dominated by highly-chlorinated PCDDs, particularly Octa-CDD, and were contributed individually or jointly by the MSWI, automobile exhaust and pentachlorophenol (PCP)/Na-PCP. The non-carcinogenic risks of dioxins in all the soil samples were acceptable, but their carcinogenic risks in 17% of the samples were unacceptable. These samples were all located close to the MSWI and highways, therefore, the land use of these two high-risk zones should be cautiously planed.