Effects of sequential feeding with adjustments to dietary amino acid concentration according to the circadian rhythm on the performance, body composition, and nutrient balance of growing-finishing pigs
Veira, A.M.; Dos Santos, L.S.; Campos, P.H.R.F.; Marçal, D.A.; Fraga, A.íc.Z.; Hauschild, L.
Plos one 16(12): E0261314
ISSN/ISBN: 1932-6203 PMID: 34941900 Accession: 079532494
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a sequential feeding program (SEQ) with diets varying in amino acid (AA) concentrations in the first and last 12 h of the day on the performance, body composition, and nutrient balance of growing-finishing pigs. Sixty-eight castrated male pigs were distributed in four treatments: a daily feeding program (DP) and three SEQs. In the DP, dietary requirements of AA were adjusted daily. In the SEQ, dietary daily requirements of AA were adjusted every 12 h, providing a low AA concentration in period 1 (P1; 00:00-11:59 h) and a high AA concentration in period 2 (P2; 12:00-23:59 h). In the SEQ, three different levels of low and high AA concentrations were evaluated: ±20%, ±30%, and ±40%. The experiment lasted 82 days and was divided into phase 1 (25-50 kg body weight; BW), phase 2 (50-70 kg BW), and phase 3 (70-100 kg BW). During phase 1, irrespective of dietary AA concentration, SEQ pigs had higher lysine intake, protein gain, and phosphorus efficiency than DP pigs (P ≤ 0.05). Pigs in the SEQ showed a tendency for greater average daily gain, body protein, and body lipids compared to the DP pigs (P ≤ 0.10). During phase 2, SEQ pigs showed a tendency for higher average feed intake in P2 compared to DP pigs (P = 0.07); consequently, average daily gain, body protein, and phosphorus retention tended to increase (P ≤ 0.10). During phase 3, SEQ pigs had a higher average feed intake in P2 than DP pigs (P = 0.03). However, they had a similar body composition (P > 0.05) and a tendency for higher nitrogen excretion (P = 0.06) than DP pigs. Our results suggest that SEQ is an effective approach for improving the performance and body composition of growing pigs.