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Ethyl Acetate Fractions of Papaver rhoeas L. and Papaver nudicaule L. Exert Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities

Ethyl Acetate Fractions of Papaver rhoeas L. and Papaver nudicaule L. Exert Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities

Antioxidants 10(12)

PMID: 34942995

Abnormal inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in various diseases. Papaver rhoeas L. possesses various pharmacological activities, and a previously reported analysis of the anti-inflammatory effect of P. nudicaule ethanol extracts and alkaloid profiles of the plants suggest isoquinoline alkaloids as potential pharmacologically active compounds. Here, we investigated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fractions of P. nudicaule and P. rhoeas extracts in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EtOAc fractions of P. nudicaule and P. rhoeas compared to their ethanol extracts showed less toxicity but more inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide production. Moreover, EtOAc fractions lowered the LPS-induced production of proinflammatory molecules and cytokines and inhibited LPS-activated STAT3 and NF-κB, and additionally showed significant free radical scavenging activity and decreased LPS-induced reactive oxygen species and oxidized glutathione. EtOAc fractions of P. nudicaule increased the expression of HO-1, GCLC, NQO-1, and Nrf2 in LPS-stimulated cells and that of P. rhoeas enhanced NQO-1. Furthermore, metabolomic and biochemometric analyses of ethanol extracts and EtOAc fractions indicated that EtOAc fractions of P. nudicaule and P. rhoeas have potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, further suggesting that alkaloids in EtOAc fractions are potent active molecules of tested plants.

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