Section 80
Chapter 79,568

Combination of electroconvulsive stimulation with ketamine or escitalopram protects the brain against inflammation and oxidative stress induced by maternal deprivation and is critical for associated behaviors in male and female rats

Abelaira, H.M.; Rosa, T.; de Moura, A.B.; Andrade, N.M.; Martinello, N.S.; Maciel, L.R.; Botelho, M.E.M.; Borba, L.A.; Chede, B.C.; Arent, C.O.; Joaquim, L.; Bonfante, S.; Danielski, L.éi.G.; Tuon, T.; Petronilho, F.; Quevedo, J.ão.; Réus, G.Z.

Molecular Neurobiology 59(3): 1452-1475


ISSN/ISBN: 1559-1182
PMID: 34994953
Accession: 079567932

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This study aimed at evaluating the treatment effects with ketamine, electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS), escitalopram, alone or in combination in adult rats of both sexes, subjected to the animal model of maternal deprivation (MD). All groups were subjected to the forced swimming test (FST), splash and open field tests. The prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and serum were collected to analyze oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters. MD induced depressive-like behavior in the FST test in males and reduced grooming time in male and female rats. The treatments alone or combined reversed depressive and anhedonic behavior in females. In males, all treatments increased grooming time, except for ECS + escitalopram + ketamine. MD increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation, nitrite/nitrate concentration and myeloperoxidase activity in the PFC and hippocampus of males and females. However, the treatment's response was sex dependent. Catalase activity decreased in the PFC of males and the PFC and hippocampus of females, and most treatments were not able to reverse it. MD increased the inflammation biomarkers levels in the PFC and hippocampus of males and females, and most treatments were able to reverse this increase. In all groups, a reduction in the interleukin-10 levels in the PFC and hippocampus of female and male rats was observed. Our study shows different responses between the sexes in the patterns evaluated and reinforces the use of the gender variable as a biological factor in MDD related to early stress and in the response of the therapeutic strategies used.

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