The effects of neonatal maternal deprivation and chronic unpredictable stresses on migraine-like behaviors in adult rats
Raoof, M.; Amanpour, S.; Roghani, A.; Abbasnejad, M.; Kooshki, R.; Askari-Zahabi, K.; Mohamadi-Jorjafki, E.; Majdzadeh, B.; Aarab, G.; Lobbezoo, F.
Neuroscience Letters 772: 136444
Stress is known to cause migraine. This study investigates the effects of neonatal maternal deprivation (MD) and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) on migraine in rats. Seventy rats were randomly divided into ten groups (five groups of each sex, and seven rats/group). The groups included: untreated intact, nitroglycerin (NTG) only, NTG + MD, NTG + CUS (10 weeks after birth), and NTG + MD + CUS. For the induction of MD, pups were separated from their mothers from postnatal day 2 to day 14. The CUS was conducted by daily exposure to different stressors for 2 weeks. For the induction of migraine after stress, NTG (5 mg/kg/IP) was administered every second day for 9 days. Afterward, NTG-related symptoms, including climbing behavior, facial rubbing, body grooming, freezing behavior, and head-scratching, were recorded for 90 min. Statistical differences between the groups were analyzed by one-way and two-way ANOVA followed by the Newman-Keuls test. Migraine symptoms, including increased head-scratching, facial rubbing, and decreased climbing behavior, were more significant in females than in males. Head scratching and facial rubbing increased in stressed females, but not in males as compared to NTG-treated rats. Body grooming was significantly decreased in MD males compared to the NTG group. The effects of NTG in MD + CUS on the rats did not differ from those in the MD or CUS groups. MD and CUS had a sex-related aggravating effect on the development of migraine, while the combination of MD and CUS had no additive migraine-aggravating effect.