Identification of galangin as the bioactive compound from Alpinia calcarata (Haw.) Roscoe rhizomes to inhibit IRAK-1/ MAPK/ NF-κB p65 and JAK-1 signaling in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells
Erusappan, T.; Paramasivam, S.; Ekambaram, S.Priya.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 288: 114975
Alpinia calcarata (Haw.) Roscoe rhizomes are used to treat diabetes, rheumatism, gastrointestinal problems, inflammatory diseases, cough and respiratory problems in traditional practices. The primary objective of the study is to identify and isolate anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds from A.calcarata rhizomes and to assess its molecular mechanism. The bioassay-guided fractionation of methanolic extract of A. calcarata rhizomes yielded chloroform fraction as the effective fraction and galangin as the bioactive compound identified by NMR studies. The anti-inflammatory action of galangin was evaluated by determining NO and cytokine production in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Further, its mechanism was studied on the expression levels of mRNA and protein targets by qPCR and Western blot analysis. Based on the MTT assay, the concentration of 3.1-25 μM of galangin was selected for further studies. Galangin reduced the levels of NO and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) production in LPS induced RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the qPCR analysis revealed a reduction in the mRNA expression levels of COX-2, IRAK 1 and JAK 1 in galangin treated LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis implicated that galangin has markedly reduced the protein expression levels of cell signaling regulators (JAK-1, IRAK-1, MyD88, MAPK (p38 and ERK) and NF-κB p65). From the results, it is evident that the inhibition of these cell signaling regulators has contributed to the anti-inflammatory effects of galangin. To our knowledge, we are the first to report IRAK-1 and JAK-1 as therapeutic targets of galangin for its anti-inflammatory effect.