Operational daily evapotranspiration mapping at field scale based on SSEBop model and spatiotemporal fusion of multi-source remote sensing data

Zhuang, Q.; Shao, H.; Guan, D.

Plos one 17(2): E0264133


ISSN/ISBN: 1932-6203
PMID: 35176120
Accession: 079685411

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Accurate understanding of daily evapotranspiration (ET) at field scale is of great significance for agricultural water resources management. The operational simplified surface energy balance (SSEBop) model has been applied to estimate field scale ET with Landsat satellite imagery. However, there is still uncertainty in the ET time reconstruction for cloudy days based on limited clear days' Landsat ET fraction (ETf) computed by SSEBop. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing data can provide daily surface observation over clear-sky areas. This paper presented an enhanced gap-filling scheme for the SSEBop ET model, which improved the temporal resolution of Landsat ETf through the spatio-temporal fusion with SSEBop MODIS ETf on clear days and increased the time reconstruction accuracy of field-scale ET. The results were validated with the eddy covariance (EC) measurements over cropland in northwestern China. It indicated that the improved scheme performed better than the original SSEBop Landsat approach in daily ET estimation, with higher Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE, 0.75 vs. 0.70), lower root mean square error (RMSE, 0.95 mm·d-1 vs. 1.05 mm·d-1), and percent bias (PBias, 16.5% vs. 25.0%). This fusion method reduced the proportion of deviation (13.3% vs. 25.5%) in the total errors and made the random error the main proportion, which can be reduced over time and space in regional ET estimation. It also evidently improved the underestimation of crop ET by the SSEBop Landsat scheme during irrigation before sowing and could more accurately describe the synergistic changes of soil moisture and cropland ET. The proposed MODIS and Landsat ETf fusion can significantly improve the accuracy of SSEBop in estimating field-scale ET.