Impact of the Trade-Related Aspect of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement on Pharmaceutical Industry in Developing Countries: a Scoping Review
Fathi, M.; Peiravian, F.; Yousefi, N.
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: Ijpr 20(4): 339-351
Pharmaceutical companies in developing countries are heavily influenced by the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement and economic liberalization rules. To adjust to the new patent regime, pharmaceutical companies had to adopt some strategies. A systematic review was conducted on the experiences of the pharmaceutical industry in developing countries and strategies adopted by local pharmaceutical companies to survive after the TRIPS agreement. Scopus, PubMed, and ProQuest databases were searched, and twenty-five papers were reviewed. The pharmaceutical industry experiences have been classified into successful and unsuccessful experiences based on criteria developed by the authors. Firm strategies were also divided into four categories based on external and internal factors: aggressive, conservative, competitive, and defensive strategies. Companies were able to survive and even grow after the TRIPS agreement by rebuilding their structures, improving their competencies, and adopting appropriate strategies in line with the new conditions.