Contribution of Biological Age-Predictive Biomarkers to Nutrition Research: a Systematic Review of the Current Evidence and Implications for Future Research and Clinical Practice
Siopis, G.; Porter, J.
Advances in Nutrition 13(5): 1930-1946
The global population is living longer, however not everyone ages at the same rate in regard to their physical and cognitive abilities and their vulnerability to certain diseases and death. This review aimed to synthesise the contribution of biological age-predictive biomarkers to nutrition research and highlight the implications for future research and clinical practice. MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane CENTRAL were systematically searched on 30/9/2021 for randomised controlled trials and cross-sectional studies examining the association between nutrition and biological age in older adults reporting on genetic, clinical or molecular biomarkers of biological ageing. ROB 2 and ROBINS-I were used to assess the quality of included studies. Synthesis was undertaken narratively. Of 1245 records identified from the search, thirteen studies from eight countries and territories, involving 5,043 participants, were included. Seven studies assessed associations between nutrient food intake and telomere attrition, reporting protective effects for branched-chain amino acids, calcium and vitamin D and a diet of a lower inflammatory index, whereas they found shorter telomeres in people consuming more processed foods and arachidonic acid and other pro-inflammatory compounds. Five studies examined the associations between plasma nutrition biomarkers and cognitive function, and found a protective effect for high-density lipoprotein, vitamins B, C, D, and E, lycopene, carotenoids, ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, whereas trans fatty acids and fibrinogen correlated with a decline in cognitive function. One study used Horvath's clock and reported the epigenetic rejuvenation effect of Mediterranean diet. In conclusion, biological ageing was negatively associated with anti-inflammatory diet. However, few studies did not control for the confounding effect of other lifestyle factors. Future research should address this and also assess the synergistic effect of different nutrients, their combinations, and evaluate their dose-response relationships. Nutrition practice can incorporate updated screening procedures for older people that include relevant biological ageing nutrition markers, leading to anti-ageing precision nutrition therapy. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021288122.