Longitudinal in Vitro Effects of Silver Diamine Fluoride on Early Enamel Caries Lesions
Alcorn, A.; Al Dehailan, L.; Cook, N.B.; Tang, Q.; Lippert, F.
Operative Dentistry 47(3): 309-319
ISSN/ISBN: 1559-2863 PMID: 35776957 Accession: 080074451
This laboratory study evaluated the longitudinal surface microhardness changes in early, incipient, noncavitated, white-spot, enamel caries lesions treated with silver diamine fluoride (SDF). Five intervention groups (SDF, AgNO3, KF, 5% sodium fluoride varnish (FV), deionized water (DI)) × two-time intervals after intervention (immediate & delayed pH-cycling) resulted in 10 groups (n=18). Silver nitrate (AgNO3) and potassium fluoride (KF) groups served as controls to assist in evaluating if remineralization effects were due to the silver or fluoride component in SDF. Early, incipient, noncavitated, white-spot, enamel caries lesions were created in bovine enamel, the extent of demineralization was determined using Vickers surface microhardness (VHNlesion). Intervention treatments were applied. Half the specimens from each group underwent immediate 5-day pH-cycling, and half were stored in an incubator with artificial saliva for 2 weeks before undergoing 5-day pH-cycling. After pH-cycling, lesion hardness was evaluated using VHNpost. Specimens were then exposed to a second demineralization challenge, and lesion softening was evaluated (VHNsecdem). Hardness variables were calculated: ΔVHN = VHNpost - VHNlesion; ΔVHNsecdem = VHNsecdem - VHNpost. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (α=0.05). Immediately cycled, SDF had significantly (p<0.0001) greater remineralization than DI, AgNO3, and FV. All delayed cycling groups had significantly greater remineralization than FV (p<0.0001). Significantly greater remineralization was noted in delayed AgNO3 (p≤0.0001), DI (p=0.0003), and FV (p=0.0006) compared to immediately cycled. After the second demineralization challenge, FV had significantly less surface softening than AgNO3 (p=0.0002), DI (p=0.0003), KF (p=0.0225), and SDF (p=0.0388) intervention groups. No significant difference was found between the pH-cycle timings (p=0.2710). Based the present findings, FV may be better suited than SDF to treat early, incipient, noncavitated, white-spot, enamel caries lesions.