Relationships between Body Weight Status and Serum Levels of Adipokine, Myokine and Bone Metabolism Parameters in Healthy Normal Weight and Thin Children

Ambroszkiewicz, J.; Chełchowska, M.; Mazur, J.; Rowicka, G.ży.; Gajewska, J.

Journal of Clinical Medicine 11(14)

2022


ISSN/ISBN: 2077-0383
PMID: 35887780
Accession: 080142513

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Abstract
Optimal body weight and body composition for age are relevant to child development and healthy life. Changes in lean mass and fat mass as well as its distribution are associated with alterations in the secretion of myokines and adipokines by muscle and adipose tissues. These factors are very important for bone health. The aim of the study was to assess serum leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin and omentin as adipokines and myostatin and irisin as myokines with regard to their associations with bone parameters in healthy normal weight and thin children. We studied 81 healthy prepubertal children (aged 5 to 9 years) divided into three groups: group A-35 children with a BMI z-score between +1 and -1 SD; group B-36 children with a BMI z-score between -1 and -2 SD; and group C-10 thin children with a BMI z-score of <-2 SD. We observed significantly (p < 0.001) lower fat mass, fat/lean mass ratio and bone mineral density (BMD) across weight status with the lowest values in the group of thin children. We noticed significantly (p < 0.05) lower concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, resistin and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin but higher levels of myostatin as the BMI z-score deceased. We found that BMI and leptin levels were directly correlated with fat mass, lean mass, bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD. Resistin levels were negatively associated with lean mass, while visfatin concentrations were positively related to total BMD. In healthy prepubertal children there were differences in body composition and in bone mineral density across decreasing BMI status. We suggest that changes in serum myostatin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may play a role in bone status of thin children. Moreover, significant relations between adipokines and bone parameters may confirm crosstalk between fat tissue and bone in these children.