Impacts of ultrasound on oxide removal - An attempt towards acid-free cleaning
Long, Y.; Bai, F.; Zhang, Y.; Saalbach, K.-A.; Twiefel, J.
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 57(252): 1-11
Efficiency of blue (462 ± 3 nm) light emitting diode (LED) illumination to inactivate Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of exogenous photosensitizer (curcumin) was studied in freshly squeezed orange juice. Further, the combinational effect of ultrasound (US), photosensitizer (PS) and blue light (BL) on inactivation of microbes was evaluated. The effect of process parameters such as concentration of PS, US and volume of the juice on E. coli and S. aureus inactivation was also investigated. The US alone and PS + BL treatments resulted in 3.02 ± 0.52 and 1.06 ± 0.13 log reduction of E. coli; 0.18 ± 0.14 and 2.34 ± 0.13 log reduction of S. aureus, respectively. The combination of PS + US + BL treatment at optimized conditions resulted in 2.35 ± 0.16 log reduction of S. aureus. An additive effect on the inactivation of E. coli (4.26 ± 0.32 log reduction) was observed with PS + US + BL combination treatment. The US treatment showed significant change in cloud value, colour and browning index of orange juice. The combinational non-thermal processes (PS + BL and PS + US + BL) did not have any significant effect on total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and hesperidin content of the orange juice. However, these processes affected ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity negatively. Thus, this study indicated that photodynamic inactivation of E. coli and S. aureus using LED-based photosensitization in fruit juices could be a potential method for microbial inactivation. Nevertheless, the effect on quality parameters needs to be considered while optimizing the process.