Investigating the possible mechanisms of pirfenidone to be targeted as a promising anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-tumor, and/or anti-SARS-CoV-2

Antar, S.A.; Saleh, M.A.; Al-Karmalawy, A.A.

Life Sciences 309: 121048

2022


ISSN/ISBN: 1879-0631
PMID: 36209833
Accession: 080561888

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Abstract
Pirfenidone (PFD) is a non-peptide synthetic chemical that inhibits the production of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and collagen 1 (COL1A1), all of which have been linked to the prevention or removal of excessive scar tissue deposition in many organs. PFD has been demonstrated to decrease apoptosis, downregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) receptor expression, reduce inflammation through many routes, and alleviate oxidative stress in pneumocytes and other cells while protecting them from COVID-19 invasion and cytokine storm. Based on the mechanism of action of PFD and the known pathophysiology of COVID-19, it was recommended to treat COVID-19 patients. The use of PFD as a treatment for a range of disorders is currently being studied, with an emphasis on outcomes related to reduced inflammation and fibrogenesis. As a result, rather than exploring the molecule's chemical characteristics, this review focuses on innovative PFD efficacy data. Briefly, herein we tried to investigate, discuss, and illustrate the possible mechanisms of actions for PFD to be targeted as a promising anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-tumor, and/or anti-SARS-CoV-2 candidate.