Karyotype Analysis, Genomic and Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (GISH and FISH) Reveal the Ploidy and Parental Origin of Chromosomes in Paeonia Itoh Hybrids

Cui, L.; Chen, T.; Zhao, X.; Wang, S.; Ren, X.; Xue, J.; Zhang, X.

International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23(19)


ISSN/ISBN: 1422-0067
PMID: 36232706
Accession: 080574975

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Itoh hybrids are intersectional hybrids in Paeonia L. with sect. Moutan and sect. Paeonia as paternal and maternal parents, respectively. Therefore, these hybrids have herbaceous stems with improved ornamental value introduced by the paternal parent. Although both of their parents are diploids, Itoh hybrids are triploids. Moreover, the parental origin of their chromosomes has not been extensively studied. This study systematically analyzed the genome size, ploidy, and karyotype of Itoh hybrids and compared them with their parental taxa. Although the monoploid genome size of Itoh hybrids was different, it was not significantly different from that of the parents. However, the size of varieties in the two parental taxa was significantly different from the wild species, probably due to genome rearrangements caused by artificial selection. Further karyotype analysis, correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering could not identify the parental origin of chromosomes in Itoh hybrids. Verification through genomic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (GISH and FISH) suggested that for the three sets of chromosomes in Itoh hybrids, two were from the paternal parent, and one was from the maternal parent. One of the first two sets was from wild species, and the other from a cultivated variety. GISH could not label the chromosomes of cultivated peonies from the sect. Moutan, probably due to the huge and complex genomes compared with the wild species. Meanwhile, 5S rDNA-based FISH was first applied in Paeonia, which may be used for ploidy assessment. This work may give insights into the utilization of Itoh hybrid resources.