Multiphasic bone-ligament-bone integrated scaffold enhances ligamentization and graft-bone integration after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

Xie, X.; Cai, J.; Li, D.; Chen, Y.; Wang, C.; Hou, G.; Steinberg, T.; Rolauffs, B.; El-Newehy, M.; El-Hamshary, H.; Jiang, J.; Mo, X.; Zhao, J.; Wu, J.

Bioactive Materials 31: 178-191

2024


ISSN/ISBN: 2452-199X
PMID: 37637081
Accession: 090479530

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Abstract
The escalating prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in sports necessitates innovative strategies for ACL reconstruction. In this study, we propose a multiphasic bone-ligament-bone (BLB) integrated scaffold as a potential solution. The BLB scaffold comprised two polylactic acid (PLA)/deferoxamine (DFO)@mesoporous hydroxyapatite (MHA) thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) scaffolds bridged by silk fibroin (SF)/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)@Poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) nanofiber yarn braided scaffold. This combination mimics the native architecture of the ACL tissue. The mechanical properties of the BLB scaffolds were determined to be compatible with the human ACL. In vitro experiments demonstrated that CTGF induced the expression of ligament-related genes, while TIPS scaffolds loaded with MHA and DFO enhanced the osteogenic-related gene expression of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and promoted the migration and tubular formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In rabbit models, the BLB scaffold efficiently facilitated ligamentization and graft-bone integration processes by providing bioactive substances. The double delivery of DFO and calcium ions by the BLB scaffold synergistically promoted bone regeneration, while CTGF improved collagen formation and ligament healing. Collectively, the findings indicate that the BLB scaffold exhibits substantial promise for ACL reconstruction. Additional investigation and advancement of this scaffold may yield enhanced results in the management of ACL injuries.