Analysis of the improvement in monocular amblyopia visual acuity caused by the changes in non-amblyopia visual acuity in 74 adults

Guo, Y.; Yan, H.; Guo, C.; Zhang, D.; Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Yang, Y.

Medicine 102(37): E34606

2023


ISSN/ISBN: 1536-5964
PMID: 37713888
Accession: 090548615

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Abstract
To observe the clinical phenomenon of amblyopia vision improvement in patients with monocular amblyopia over 18 years old after non-amblyopia diseases, analyze the conditions and causes of vision improvement, explore the plasticity of the adult optic nerve, and provide a clinical basis for the treatment of adult amblyopia. A total of 74 patients with monocular amblyopia combined with non-amblyopia visual acuity decline from 2018 to 2021 were collected. The patient's age, initial best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), pattern visual evoked potential examination results, and visual acuity regression were recorded. The BCVA of amblyopia was recorded every 3 months using an early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study visual acuity chart. In the 3rd month, BCVA increased by 16.2%, reaching 98% in the 9th month and 100% in the 12th months. According to the age of patients, the group aged 18 to 35 years was better than the group aged 35 to 60 years, whereas the group aged 35 to 60 years was better than the group aged over 60 years (P < .05). According to the comparison of initial visual acuity, the BCVA of the < 5 letter group was lower than that of the other 2 groups (P < .05). According to the pattern visual evoked potential results, the peak time of the < 10 ms group was better than that of the 10 to 20 ms group; the 10 to 20 ms group was better than that of the > 20 ms group; the peak decrease of the < 30% group was better than that of the 30% to 50% group; and the 30% to 50% group was better than that of the > 50% group (P < .05). The visual acuity regression of amblyopia in the 0.5 to 1-year group was higher than that in the other 2 groups (P < .05). This study confirms that adult amblyopia can still be cured under certain conditions. This visual plasticity is related to age, initial visual acuity, and excitability of the visual center. This study provides new clinical evidence and diagnostic ideas for the study of the pathogenesis of adult amblyopia.