The effect of calorie-restriction along with thylakoid membranes of spinach on the gut-brain Axis Pathway and oxidative stress biomarkers in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Randomized, Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

Nikrad, N.; Farhangi, M.A.; Fard Tabrizi, F.P.; Vaezi, M.; Mahmoudpour, A.; Mesgari-Abbasi, M.

Journal of Ovarian Research 16(1): 216


ISSN/ISBN: 1757-2215
PMID: 37968684
Accession: 090745302

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Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher intestinal mucosal permeability, leading to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leakage and endotoxemia. This, in turn, leads to oxidative stress (OS) and neuro-inflammation caused by the gut-brain axis, affecting the neurotrophic factors levels such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100 B) levels. In this study, it was hypothesized that the thylakoid membranes of spinach supplementation along with a hypocaloric diet may have improved the LPS levels, neurotrophic factors, and OS in PCOS patients. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, and clinical trial, 48 women with obesity and diagnosed with PCOS based on Rotterdam criteria were randomly assigned to thylakoid (N = 21) and placebo groups (N = 23). A personalized hypocaloric diet with 500 calories less than the total energy expenditure was prescribed to all patients. The participants were daily supplemented with either a 5 g/day thylakoid-rich spinach extract or a placebo (5 g cornstarch) for 12 weeks along with a prescribed low-calorie diet. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and after the 12-week intervention. A statistically significant decrease in the LPS levels (P < 0.001) and an increase in the BDNF levels (P < 0.001) were recorded for the participants receiving the oral thylakoid supplements and a low-calorie diet. Furthermore, significant decreases were observed in fasting blood glucose, insulin, homeostatic model of assessment for insulin resistance, free testosterone index, and follicle-stimulating hormone / luteinizing hormone ratio in both groups (P < 0.05). No significant differences were detected between the two groups regarding the changes in malondialdehyde, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, and S100B levels (P > 0.05). In sum, the thylakoid membranes of spinach supplemented with a hypocaloric diet reduced the LPS levels, increased the BDNF levels, and improved the glycemic profile and sex-hormone levels; however, they had no effects on the OS markers levels after 12 weeks of intervention.