Monitoring the Efficacy of High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy in Patients with Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure in the General Respiratory Ward: a Prospective Observational Study

Zhao, Z.; Chang, M.-Y.; Zhang, T.; Gow, C.-H.

Biomedicines 11(11)


ISSN/ISBN: 2227-9059
PMID: 38002067
Accession: 090766833

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High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is widely used to treat hypoxemic respiratory failure. The effectiveness of HFNC treatment and the methods for monitoring its efficacy in the general ward remain unclear. This prospective observational study enrolled 42 patients who had acute hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring HFNC oxygen therapy in the general adult respiratory ward. The primary outcome was the all-cause in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included the association between initial blood test results and HFNC outcomes. Regional ventilation distributions were monitored in 24 patients using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) after HFNC initiation. Patients with successful HFNC treatment had better in-hospital survival (94%) compared to those with failed HFNC treatment (0%, p < 0.001). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios of ≥9 were more common in patients with failed HFNC (70%) compared to those with successful HFNC (52%, p = 0.070), and these patients had shorter hospital survival rates after HFNC treatment (p = 0.046, Tarone-Ware test). Patients with successful HFNC treatment had a more central ventilation distribution compared to those with failed HFNC treatment (p < 0.05). Similarly, patients who survived HFNC treatment had a more central distribution compared to those who did not survive (p < 0.001). We concluded that HFNC in the general respiratory ward may be a potential rescue therapy for patients with respiratory failure. EIT can potentially monitor patients receiving HFNC therapy.